The characterization of low-dimensional materials such as graphene or transition metal dichalogenides (TMDCs) often requires more than one technique to obtain a thorough understanding of their attributes for specific applications. Graphene and TMDCs both have layered structures and properties that vary significantly with thickness as compared to single layer conformations, making them very interesting for electronics design [1, 2]. Electronic device performance optimization can benefit greatly from knowledge of their crystalline structure and exciton dynamics. The aim of the following analysis is to show how several spectroscopy (Raman/Photoluminescence) and microscopy techniques (AFM/SEM) can, in correlation, provide a more detailed depiction of low-dimensional materials than the constituent measurements could offer in isolation.
Raman spectroscopy, and Raman imaging in particular, has proved to be of great value in differentiating spectra obtained from single, double and multi-layered low-dimensional materials. Raman imaging was also used to evaluate strain, doping, chirality and disorder in graphene and TMDCs [3, 4]. The information acquired with Raman spectroscopy and imaging can be complemented by data from highest resolution microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Near-Field Microscopy (SNOM), or Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Fig. 1a shows a correlative Raman-SEM image of exfoliated graphene deposited on a non-conductive glass coverslip. The SEM image was acquired in the low vacuum mode using a BSE detector. Different graphene sheets can be clearly visualized. In the center of the SEM image a confocal Raman image was acquired, showing the presence of different number of graphene layers, from one (green) to ten (yellow). The high resolution confocal Raman image (Fig. 1b), acquired from the area marked in Fig. 1a shows the intensity distribution of the G band as a function of layers in the graphene sheet as indicated with 1, 2 and M (multy-) layers. By evaluating the intensity of the D-band, the chirality of the graphene crystal could be determined as highlighted in red color in Fig. 1b. The SNOM image from the same area (Fig. 1c) shows that the transparency of the graphene decreases with increase of number of layers providing direct access to the fine structure of graphene.
In a second example a high resolution SEM image of CVD grown MoS2 is pesented (Fig. 2a). The Raman-SEM image (RISE image) presented in Fig. 2b shows a correlation of changes in the Raman spectrum at the defects of the crystals.
 A. K. Geim , I. V. Grigorieva, Nature 499 (2013), p. 419.
 F. H. L. Koppens, T. Nueller, P. Avouris, A.C. Ferrari, M. S. Vitiello, M. Polini, M. Nat. Nano 9 (2014) p. 780.
 Y. You, Z. Ni, T.Yu, Z. Shen, Appl. Phys. Letters 39 (2008) p.13112.
 P.K. Chow, R.J. Gedrim, J. Gao, T. M. Lu, B. Yu, H. Terrones, N. Koratka, ACS Nano (in press)
To cite this abstract:Ute Schmidt, Maxime Tchaya, Philippe Ayasse, Olaf Hollricher ; Correlative Microscopy: Raman Imaging Meets AFM, SNOM, and SEM. The 16th European Microscopy Congress, Lyon, France. https://emc-proceedings.com/abstract/correlative-microscopy-raman-imaging-meets-afm-snom-and-sem/. Accessed: May 27, 2019
EMC Abstracts - https://emc-proceedings.com/abstract/correlative-microscopy-raman-imaging-meets-afm-snom-and-sem/